Enterprise logistics mode selection.
The enterprise logistics mode mainly includes self-supporting logistics and outsourcing logistics. When making logistics decisions, enterprises should take the following main factors into consideration according to their own needs and resource conditions, and choose logistics mode carefully.
(1) the influence of logistics on the success of enterprises and the management ability of enterprises on logistics. If logistics is important to the success of the enterprise, the enterprise's ability to deal with logistics is relatively low, and outsourcing logistics is adopted. If the importance of logistics to business success is low, and the ability to deal with logistics enterprise is also low, the outsourcing of logistics services: if the logistics for the enterprise success important degree is high, and that the logistics enterprise management ability is high, the self-run logistics.
(2) enterprise's demand for logistics control. The more competitive the market, the more the enterprise should strengthen its control over the supply and distribution channels. In general, the final product manufacturer of channels or stronger control over the supply chain process, often choose self-conducting logistics, which is the leading enterprise to organize the whole process of logistics activities, develop logistics service standards.
(3) logistics characteristics of enterprise products themselves. For the return or fresh product distribution of raw materials, the relative fixed professional logistics service providers and short channel logistics should be used. The distribution of global markets should be supported by regional professional logistics companies. For enterprises with a single product line, they should operate their own logistics under the unity of leading enterprises; For the more technical logistics services, such as port logistics service, enterprises should adopt the way of principal-agent; For non-standard equipment manufacturers, the business is profitable, but should be given to a professional logistics service company.
(4) size and strength of the enterprise. Generally, large and medium-sized enterprises have the ability to establish their own logistic systems and formulate appropriate logistics demand plans to ensure the quality of logistics services. In addition, the surplus logistics network resources can be used to expand the external business (providing logistics services for other enterprises). However, small and medium-sized enterprises are restricted by the resources of personnel, capital and management, and the efficiency of logistics management is difficult to improve. At this time, the enterprise should give the logistics management to the third-party professional logistics company to use the resources for the main core business. For example, the powerful McDonald's company must ship hamburgers and other fresh food to all parts of China every day, so as to ensure the accurate and timely delivery of the products, and establish their own freight forwarders.
(5) total cost of logistics system. It is necessary to find out the total cost of two modes of logistics system when choosing whether to outsource or not. Calculation formula is: the total cost of logistics system = total transportation cost + inventory to maintain cost + batch cost + total fixed storage cost + total variable cost + order processing and information costs + customer service fees. There is an antinomy between these costs: when reducing the number of warehouses, the storage cost can be reduced, but the increase of transportation distance and frequency will lead to the increase of transportation costs. If the increase in transportation costs exceeds the reduction in warehousing costs, the total logistics cost will increase. Therefore, when choosing and designing the logistics system, we should prove the total cost of the logistics system and finally choose the logistics system with the least cost.
(6) customer service ability of outsourcing logistics. When choosing logistics mode, it is very important to consider the logistics cost, but it is very important to choose logistics service to provide service to the enterprise and enterprise customers. This means that the outsourcing of logistics in satisfy the business enterprise ability and reliability of the demand for raw materials in a timely manner, outsourcing logistics providers to enterprise's retailers and final customers changing needs reactions, etc should be the primary factors to consider.
(7) the selection of self-owned assets and non-self-owned assets outsourcing logistics. The third party is a professional logistics company that has its own means of transportation and warehouse. They have a larger scale, a strong customer base, a well-placed system. The third party, which owns the assets, usually has a higher degree of specialization, but the flexibility is often limited. Non self hold assets to a third party means that does not have hardware or just rent a small amount of assets, such as transportation, they are mainly engaged in the logistics system design, inventory management and logistics information management, and other functions, and the transportation and storage of goods, such as the specific operation activities shall be borne by the other logistics enterprise, but responsible for system operation of logistics management company. Such companies are usually flexible, able to modify service content, and can mix and deploy suppliers freely. Management costs are low. Enterprises should choose and utilize the two models according to their own requirements.