Logistics information technology
Logistics information technology, logistics information technology) is the modern information technology in the application of various assignments logistics link is the sign of the modern logistics difference between traditional logistics, and logistics technology of the fastest growing in the field, especially the wide application of computer network technology to make logistics information technology has reached the higher application level.
Apply the information technology in each link of logistics. According to the functions and characteristics of logistics, logistics information technology such as computer technology, network technology, information classification and coding technology, bar code technology, radio frequency identification technology, electronic data interchange (edi) technology, global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and so on.
Logistics information technology is an important symbol of modernization, and a of the fastest growing areas of logistics technology, from the bar code data acquisition system, the office automation system in the computer, the Internet, all kinds of terminal equipment such as hardware, and computer software are in rapid development. At the same time, with the continuous development of logistics information technology, a series of new logistics concepts and new logistics management methods have been produced, which has promoted the change of logistics. In supply chain management, logistics information technology development has also changed the enterprise application of supply chain management for competitive advantage, successful business by applying information technology to support its business strategy and choice of its business. Through the use of information technology to improve the efficiency of supply chain activities, enhance the whole supply chain management decision-making ability.
The composition of logistics information technology.
Bar code technology
Barcode technology is an automatic recognition technology which is generated and developed in the application of computer. It provides us with a way to identify and describe the goods in logistics. Barcode is the technical basis of POS system, EDI, electronic commerce and supply chain management. It is an important technology means to modernize logistics management, improve enterprise management level and competition ability.
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) refers to the transmission and exchange of structured Data by means of Electronic means and standardized format. The three components of EDI system are EDI software and hardware, communication network and data standardization.
Radio frequency (rf) technology
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a non - contact automatic identification technology which automatically identifies target objects to obtain relevant data. Identification work without human intervention, can work in all kinds of harsh environment. Short range rf products are not afraid of oil stains, dust pollution and other harsh environment, can substitute barcode, for example, to track objects on the factory assembly line. Long distance radiofrequency products are used for transportation, and the recognition distance can reach tens of meters, such as automatic charging or identification of vehicles.
GIS (Geographical Information System, geographic Information System) is a variety of crossover, which is based on Geographical spatial data, USES the geography model analysis method, and timely provide a wide range of space and dynamic Geographical Information, is a kind of for geographic research and geographic decision-making service System of computer technology. Its basic function is to form the data (whether it comes from a database, spreadsheet file or directly in the program input) into a geographic graphics display, then browse, operations, and analysis the result of the show. Its display range can range from intercontinental maps to very detailed block maps showing the population, sales, shipping lines and other content.
Global Positioning System (GPS) has the capability of three-dimensional navigation and Positioning in the sea, land and air. GPS can be used in the field of automobile self-positioning and tracking, for railway transportation management and military logistics.
Logistics management software includes transportation management system (TMS), warehousing management system (WMS), freight forwarding management system (FMS), supply chain management system (SCM), etc.
At home, various logistics information application technologies have been widely used in various links of logistics activities, which has had a far-reaching impact on the enterprise's logistics activities.
Application of logistics automation equipment technology.
The popular link of the integration and application of logistics automation equipment technology is the distribution center, which is characterized by the variety of items that need to be chosen every day, and lots of batches and large quantities. Therefore, logistics automation picking equipment has been introduced in the distribution centers of domestic supermarkets, medicine, postal parcels and other industries. One is chosen equipment automation applications, such as the pharmaceutical corporation distribution center in Beijing, the picking rack (plate) with visual sorting prompt device, this sorting shelves are connected to the logistics management information system, dynamically prompt have chosen the number of items and guiding the picking operation staff, improve the accuracy of the picking and speed. The other is an automatic sorting device after an object has been chosen. With barcode or electronic label attached to the identified object (general set of package transportation unit), by a conveyor belt into sorting mouth, and then from the sorting machine is equipped with read equipment sorting goods, make the goods into their own group of goods channel, complete the automatic sorting of the item. Sorting equipment is used in large domestic distribution centers. But this kind of equipment and corresponding supporting software basically are imported from abroad, also have import foreign mechanical equipment, domestic configuration software. The three-dimensional warehouse and the roadway stacking machine are developed rapidly in China, which are used in the fields of machinery manufacture, automobile, textile, railway, cigarette and so on.
The application of logistics equipment tracking and control technology.
At present, logistics equipment tracking mainly refers to the location of the goods involved in logistics transportation and logistics activities. There are different kinds of logistics equipment tracking method can be used to the traditional passive tracking methods of communication such as telephone, can be used to track periodic RFID means, but most of all, the current domestic use tracking using GPS technology. GPS technology tracking monitoring using GPS logistics management system, its main track freight vehicle and the cargo transportation situation, make the owner and the owner the location and status of the vehicles and goods at any time, effective monitoring and fast operation of the whole logistics process. Logistics GPS monitoring management system mainly includes the GPS device on a transport, tracking service platform (including the geographic information system) and the corresponding software, information communication mechanism, and other devices (such as the electronic label or barcode on the goods, alarm device, etc.). At home, some logistics enterprises also apply this technology to improve the management level and improve the service ability of customers.
Application of logistics dynamic information collection technology.
Enterprise competition, the development of globalization, the shortening of product life cycle and user delivery time shorten the availability of all the logistics services such as with controllable put forward higher requirements, real-time logistics concept emerged. How to ensure the complete control of the logistics process, the logistics dynamic information collection and application technology is a necessary element. Dynamic goods or mobile carrier itself has a lot of useful information, such as the name of the goods, quantity, weight, quality, supplier, or mobile carrier (such as vehicles, ships, etc.) the name, type, location, status and a series of information. This information may be used repeatedly in logistics, so it is obvious to improve the efficiency of logistics by correctly reading the information of dynamic goods or carriers and taking advantage of them. In the current popular dynamic logistics information collection technology applications, one, two dimensional barcode technology the most widely application scope, followed by a magnetic stripe (card), speech recognition, a portable data terminal, such as radio frequency identification (RFID) technology.
(1) a dimensional barcode technology: a dimensional barcode is lined by a set of rules and empty, and the corresponding Numbers, this article use, empty data coding machine can be used to read, and it's easy to translated into binary and decimal number. Therefore, this technique is widely used in information labeling. Because of the high reading rate of bar code which conforms to bar code and no defiler, one dimension bar code combined with corresponding scanner can obviously improve the collection speed of item information. Combined with barcode system with low cost, simple operation, is the earliest domestic application read technology, so there's a big market in China, the domestic most of the supermarkets in the use of one dimensional bar code technology. But limited data, says one dimensional barcode barcode scanner reads the information also requires very close to the distance, and readability is poor after caustic sludge on the bar code, so that limit its further popularization and application, and some other information storage capacity bigger, better read read reliability technology began to emerge.
(2) two dimensional barcode technology: as a result of one dimensional barcode information capacity is very small, such as bar code on the goods only can hold several or a dozen digits or letters, provided a detailed description of the goods can only rely on the database, left the pre-built database, the use of one dimensional barcode was limited. For this reason, people invented a new kind of code system, besides having the advantages of one-dimensional bar code, as well as great capacity of information (depending on the size of different coding technology, is a one-dimensional several times to dozens times, thus can hold personal nature and fingerprints, photos and other information), high reliability (50% in the caustic sludge can still be read complete information), confidential anti-counterfeiting strong sex, etc. This is the two-dimensional barcode technique for storing information in two dimensional space in horizontal and vertical directions. The 2d barcode inherits the characteristics of one-dimensional barcode, the barcode system is cheap, the reading rate is strong and easy to use, so it is applied in the management information system of domestic Banks and vehicles.
(3) magnetic stripe technology: magnetic stripe (card) technique to form a thin layer of coating by the directional arrangement with lron oxide particles together with resin and sticking to the nonmagnetic substrate such as paper or plastic. A magnetic stripe is essentially the same as a computer tape or disk, which can be used to record letters, characters, and digital information. Advantage is that data can be read and write many times, data storage can satisfy most requirements, due to the characteristics of strong adhesive force, is widely applied in many fields, such as credit CARDS, bank ATM CARDS, tickets, bus ticket, vending CARDS, membership CARDS, etc. However, the performance of the magnetic stripe card is different from that of some new technologies such as chip card technology.
(4) the voice recognition technology, is a kind of by identifying sound to convert text information technology, its biggest characteristic is to don't have to manually input information, the hands of those who collect data and perform with the workplace, or low ability to typing on the keyboard is particularly applicable. But the biggest problem with voice recognition is the recognition rate, which is difficult to use continuously and efficiently. At present, it is more suitable for the concentration of speech sentences and repeated applications.
(5) the visual identification technology: the visual recognition system is a kind of based on some characteristics of the image analysis and recognition system, the ability to qualified marks, characters, Numbers, etc. The information acquisition of image content. The application of visual identification technology barriers for some irregular or not enough clear image recognition rate and the data format is limited, it usually takes contact scanner scans, along with the development of automation, visual technology will towards a more detailed, more professional direction, and it can combine with other automatic identification technology applications.
(6) contact smart card technology: the smart card is a kind of will have a processing capability, encrypted storage function integrated circuit core version of embedded in the substrate of a same size with the credit card information storage technology, the chip can be read by read device contact information in the chip. Contact smart card is characterized by independent operation and storage function. In the absence of source, the data will not be lost, the data security and confidentiality are very good, and the cost is moderate. Smart card and the combination of the computer system, can easily meet all kinds of information collection and transmission, encryption, and management needs, in many areas of both at home and abroad such as Banks, such as toll roads, water meter, gas charging has been widely applied.
(7) of the portable data terminal, portable data terminal (PDT) generally includes a scanner, a small but function is very strong and a memory of a computer, a display and a keyboard for human input. So it's a multi-function data acquisition device, PDT is programmable, and it's allowed to be incorporated into some applications. The data in PDT memory can be transmitted to the main computer at any time through the rf communication technology.
(8) video identification (RFID) : RFID technology is a non-contact automatic recognition technology realized by radio frequency communication. RFID tag has small volume, large capacity, long life and reusable, etc, can support fast reading and writing, the visual recognition, mobile identification, target recognition, positioning and tracking management for a long time. RFID technology is integrated with Internet and communication technologies to realize the global wide range of goods tracking and information sharing. From the application of the above mentioned logistics information technology and the development trend of global logistics informatization, the application of logistics dynamic information collection technology is becoming a key research field in the world. As logistics in our country in developing countries, has been applied to logistics dynamic information collection technology has accumulated certain experience, such as bar code technology, the application of non-contact magnetic stripe (card) technology has been very common, but some in the forefront of new technologies, such as the research and application of RFID technology is relatively backward.
The development trend
RFID will become the key technology in the future logistics field.
According to expert analysis, RFID technology is applied in logistics industry, which can greatly improve logistics management and operation efficiency and reduce logistics cost. In addition, from the perspective of global development trend, with the continuous improvement and maturity of RFID related technologies, the RFID industry will become a new high-tech industrial cluster and become a new growth point of national economy. Therefore, RFID technology is expected to be a new lubricant for promoting the accelerated development of modern logistics.
Logistics dynamic information acquisition technology.
Under the trend of global supply chain management, timely grasping the dynamic information and quality information of goods has become the key factor of enterprise profit. But due to the nature, weather, communication, technology, laws and regulations, etc, the influence of the development of the logistics dynamic information collection technology has been greatly restricted, far cannot satisfy the needs of the development of modern logistics. It will be a breakthrough point in the field of logistics to improve the technology of dynamic information collection.
Logistics information security technology will be paid more and more attention.
With network technology developed logistics information technology, the network fast development bring great benefits in at the same time, also always suffered from may suffer from security crisis, such as network hacker intrusion to malicious attacks, viruses, strikes, information disclosure and so on. It is a major challenge for enterprises to apply security technology to guarantee the safe and stable operation of logistics information system or platform.