Logistics speed is determined by means of transportation and management tools, weather, festivals and other factors.
Traditional ideas focus only on improving logistics speed on transport. The modern concept pays attention to the management tool at the same time, the automatic identification system plays an important role in the logistics. The application of bar code greatly speeds up the storage, sorting and classification of items.
E-commerce logistics solution:
1. Foreign e-commerce logistics solutions.
- 1. The centralization of logistics, logistics central American logistics mode emphasizes the logistics management system of "integration", is a kind of interest as a whole, to break through by department in charge of the system, from the management of the unified planning and management of the whole way. In terms of marketing, logistics management includes distribution planning, transportation, storage, market research and five processes for user service. In terms of circulation and service, logistics management process, including demand forecasting, order process, raw material purchase, processing, that is, from raw material purchase until delivered to the customer's all material circulation process.
- 2. Japan's efficient distribution center - the logistics process is production - circulation - consumption - reduction (waste recycling and production data complement and reproduction). In Japan, logistics is a non-independent field, constrained by a variety of factors. Logistics (less inventory and more wholesale) and sales (more inventory less wholesale) are opposed to each other, and must be used as a whole to achieve the minimum overall cost effect. The premise of logistics is enterprise's sales policy, business management and transaction conditions. When placing orders, the conditions of delivery, order condition and inventory condition have great influence on the result of logistics. The logistics problem in circulation has shifted to the direction of logistics problems in supply, production and sales.
- 3. To adapt to the new logistics mode of electronic commerce, logistics, logistics agents (ThirdPartyLogistics, abbreviated to TPL, the third party logistics service) is defined as: "professional logistics in the logistics channel middlemen, in the form of contract, in a certain period, for other companies to provide all or some aspects of the logistics business services."
- and logistics operation from the Angle of the generalized point of view, the logistics agent includes all logistics activities, and the shipper can get some of the other agents from professional logistics value-added services. The provision of this service is conditional on a formal contract between the shipper and the logistics agent. This contract specifies the service fee, duration and mutual responsibility.
-- the narrow sense of logistics agency refers to a logistics management mode that is not fixed assets but still undertakes the logistics business and is responsible for replacing the shipper to complete the whole logistics process with the help of external forces.
- logistics agent company to undertake the warehousing, transportation agent, to reduce expenditures, to make production enterprises feel profitable again at the same time, on the whole, must be as much as possible to overall planning, logistics rationalization.
Ii. Foreign advanced e-commerce logistics model cases.
-- the development of logistics distribution industry in the United States starts early, and the experience maturity, especially the high degree of information management, is of great significance to the development of China's logistics.
- 1. The type of distribution center in the United States -- since the 1960s, the rationalization of commodity distribution has been widely valued in developed countries. In order to benefit the circulation field, American enterprises have taken the following measures: first, to replace the old warehouse with the distribution center; The second is to introduce computer management network to carry out standardized operation and improve operation efficiency. Third, the chain stores together to establish distribution center to promote the growth of chain efficiency. There are a variety of distribution centers of American chain stores, mainly wholesale, retail and warehousing types.
- (1) wholesale food distribution center - California is the second largest wholesale distribution center in the United States, was built in 1982, construction area of 100000 square meters, staff 2000 people, has more than 600 full enclosed temperature control truck, 1995 sales of $2 billion. Management products are food, there are more than 43000 varieties, of which 98% of products from the company organization replenish onr's stock, and another 2% is the center of processing of goods, mainly fresh food such as milk, bread, ice cream. The center implements membership. Each member supermarket pays different membership fee to the center because of the different size of the store and the different amount of goods required. Member stores, like other stores in daily transactions, do not enjoy any special treatment, but can participate in regular profit processing of distribution centers. The distribution center itself is not a profit unit, can not pay business tax. Therefore, when the distribution center obtains the profit, takes the form of the dividend, distributes some profits to the member store. How much of the bonus of the member store will be seen in the distribution center delivery volume and the amount of trading volume, multiple dividend.
-- the distribution center is mainly computerized. The business department obtains the order information of the member store through the computer, and sends the order sheet to the manufacturer and the storage department timely. The manufacturer and the storage department store the assigned goods at the delivery port and wait for shipment according to the order of delivery order. The distribution center operates 24 hours and the distribution radius is generally 50 kilometers.
-- the distribution center will negotiate with manufacturers and supermarkets on the price of commodities, mainly based on :(a) quantity and quality of goods; (b) payment time, such as a 2% discount for payment within 10 days; (c) the increase rate of distribution centers for the distribution of goods in supermarkets, according to the variety and grade of the goods and the quantity of the purchase order, generally ranging from 2.9% to 8.5%.
-- (2) retail -- the distribution center of wal-mart stores in the United States is a typical retail distribution center. The distribution center is solely owned by wal-mart, which provides products to the chain stores in time to ensure the stable operation of the stores. The building area of the center is 120,000 square meters, with a total investment of $70 million and more than 1,200 employees. The distribution equipment includes 200 locomotives, 400 carriages and 13 delivery conveyors, with 170 receiving ports in the delivery floor. The center operates 24 hours a day and distributes products to 100 stores in six states, including New York and Pennsylvania.
The center is located in the center of 100 stores, with a business circle of 320 km and the average size of the service object store is 12,000 square meters. There are 40,000 kinds of goods in the center, mainly food and daily necessities, usually with a stock of $40 million, a peak season of $70 million and a turnover of 24 times per year. In the inventory goods, the best-selling goods and the unmarketable goods each account for 50%, the inventory commodity period exceeds 180 days is the unmarketable commodity, the inventory of each chain stores is about 10% of the sales volume. In 1995, the center had sales of $2 billion.
The prices of goods sold at wal-mart stores vary according to regional income and consumption levels. The head office sets the upper and lower limits on the price difference, in principle not higher than the price of similar goods in the same industry in the area.
- 2. The operation process of the American distribution center -- the warehouse layout and management of the American distribution center are in perfect order, so that the busy business does not affect each other. The main experience is:
-- (1) there are 27 channels in the store shelves and 19 intake ports;
-- (2) mainly pallet, 4 sets of containers as one shelf;
- (3) the goods piled into the goods storage and distribution of goods, generally according to the production date, date of purchase of merchandise and shelf life, adopt advanced library goods outbound principle, the first is on the upper deck of the storage shelves last in the storage of goods, under the shelf storage of commodities is for outbound delivery;
-- (4) the variety distribution is a large quantity of the whole container, so it is equipped with forklift truck; The store is a small to a few pairs of socks, so use the conveyor belt to distribute the goods.
-- (5) goods with light weight and large volume (such as toilet paper, etc.) shall be equipped with forklifts, and the goods with large weight and small volume shall be equipped with conveyors;
-- (6) special commodity storage areas, such as small quantities of high-value medicines, supplements, etc. to prevent the loss and use the wire fences to indicate that no one is allowed to enter.